posted about 6 hours ago on ars technica
(credit: Kristin Sloan) On Thursday, 12 Instacart “shoppers” across 11 states filed a proposed federal class-action lawsuit against the San Francisco startup, alleging a breach of state and federal labor laws. The Instacart lawsuit is one of several currently targeting so-called “sharing economy” startups, and they all get at the same question: can workers be accurately classified as independent contractors, or should they properly be designated as employees? In Instacart’s case, customers order groceries online, but those groceries are then picked up and delivered by the company’s shoppers. So, should those shoppers be treated as employees? Classifying such workers as employees rather than contractors would entitle them to a number of benefits under federal law. This includes unemployment benefits, workers’ compensation, the right to unionize, and, most importantly, the right to seek reimbursement for mileage and tips. This reclassification would also incur new and significant costs for Instacart and other affected companies, including Uber and Lyft. An on-demand cleaning service, Homejoy, shut down last year just months after it was hit with a similar labor lawsuit. Read 11 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / My face is made of internet. (credit: Fiona Staples) Sometimes I get into one of those conversations about the Internet where the only way I can reply is to quote from The IT Crowd: "Are you from the past?" I say that every time someone asserts that the online world is somehow separate from real life. You'd be surprised how much this comes up, even after all these years of people's digital shenanigans leading to everything from espionage and murder to international video fame and fancy book deals. But now that the U.S. has a president-elect who communicates with the American people almost exclusively via Twitter and YouTube, it's really time to stop kidding ourselves. Before the election, many of us (including me) would have shrugged off the fake news stories piling up in the margins of our Facebook feeds. Nobody takes that stuff seriously, right? The election of Donald Trump and several recent tweets from the House Science Committee are two strong pieces of evidence that, yes, people do. In reality, politics have straddled the digital and meatspace for decades. Though government officials may have just learned about "the cyber," people working in computer security have been dealing with criminal and whimsical incursions into their systems since the late 20th century. It was 1990 when the infamous Operation Sundevil swept up innocents in a massive Secret Service dragnet operation to stop carders. The Stuxnet worm, which affected physical operations of centrifuges at a uranium enrichment plant in Iran, is only the most obvious example of how digital ops can have consequences away from the keyboard. Read 6 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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posted about 9 hours ago on ars technica
NASA The International Space Station fills several roles for NASA—providing a toehold in outer space for human activity, testing closed-loop technologies for long-duration spaceflight, and developing international partnerships. But perhaps the station's biggest selling point is science. It was, after all, designated a national laboratory in 2005. And what does a lab need? Scientists. Yet despite the vastly increased diversity of the astronaut corps since the early, macho days of the Mercury 7, many astronauts today are still fighter pilots, engineers, and surgeons. Relatively few are bonafide research scientists. But Kate Rubins is, and she spent 115 days on the space station this summer and fall. Before becoming an astronaut, Rubins trained in molecular biology and led a laboratory of more than a dozen researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She and her team specialized in viruses such as Ebola and Marburg, and their field work took them to Central and Western Africa. Read 3 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge Welcome to Ars Cardboard, our weekend look at tabletop games. Check out our complete board gaming coverage at cardboard.arstechnica.com. The frenzied holiday gift-shopping season is now in full swing, and board gamers across the globe are dusting off their Kallax shelves in preparation for the cardboard bounty that surely awaits them. It’s left to you, Friend of the Gamer, to make those dreams come true. Whether your giftee is a longtime gamer or a brand new convert, Ars Cardboard is here with a list of games to please players of every stripe. We've broken your friends and family into tidy little categories and provided a main pick and some alternatives for each demographic. Our main picks focus on titles released in the last year or two, but we dug into some older titles for our expanded picks. To boot, most games on this list are friendly to tabletop newbies. Read 49 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Jurors in a Charleston, South Carolina, courtroom said Friday they were deadlocked on whether to convict a white South Carolina police officer on trial for shooting an African-American man in the back. The video taken last year by a passerby was viewed online millions of times. Michael Slager (credit: YouTube) Defense attorneys for Michael Slager, a 35-year-old North Charleston officer, called for a mistrial in the murder case, while the judge has ordered the 12-member panel to continue deliberating. All the while, a single juror wrote a note to the presiding judge that he or should could not, "in good conscience, approve a guilty verdict." "You have a duty to make every reasonable effort to reach a unanimous verdict," Judge Clifton Newman told panelists, who began hearing the case a month ago. The jury began deliberating Wednesday. Read 3 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / Tom Price, R-Ga., speaks at a signing ceremony for the "Restoring Americans Healthcare Freedom Reconciliation Act of 2015" at the US Capitol in Washington in 2016. Rep. Price, who is also a physician, is the sponsor of the legislation, which is designed to eliminate key parts of President Barack Obama's health care law and stop taxpayer funds from going to Planned Parenthood. (credit: Getty | Congressional Quarterly ) President-elect Donald Trump’s nomination of six-term Congress member Tom Price (R-Ga.) for secretary of health and human services has inflamed the medical community bigly this week, causing widespread and bitter infighting. Price is not a particularly shocking pick by Trump—the Congressman is one of the fiercest Obamacare critics, and Trump vowed during his campaign to quickly repeal and replace the mammoth healthcare law. Beyond that, Price, a former orthopedic surgeon, has maintained strong conservative positions on healthcare policy. He opposes abortion rights and regulations on tobacco, for instance. But he also belongs to a small, fringe, ultra-conservative and conspiracy-laden group called the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS). Among other things, this group decries evidence-based medicine, Medicare, and Medicaid, plus it has peddled discredited, dangerous notions including that vaccines cause autism. In light of some or all of those facts, many in the medical community were left aghast and fuming by support of Price’s nomination from top medical associations, namely the powerful American Medical Association (AMA) and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). In the past few days, thousands of doctors have signed letters and petitions, condemned the groups’ support, and publicly quit the AMA. The hashtag #NotMyAMA has gathered steam on Twitter. Read 8 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge (credit: ellenm1) For almost three months, Internet-of-things botnets built by software called Mirai have been a driving force behind a new breed of attacks so powerful they threaten the Internet as we know it. Now, a new botnet is emerging that could soon magnify or even rival that threat. The as-yet unnamed botnet was first detected on November 23, the day before the US Thanksgiving holiday. For exactly 8.5 hours, it delivered a non-stop stream of junk traffic at undisclosed targets, according to this post published Friday by content delivery network CloudFlare. Every day for the next six days at roughly the same time, the same network pumped out an almost identical barrage, which is aimed at a small number of targets mostly on the US west coast. More recently, the attacks have run for 24 hours at a time. While the new distributed denial-of-service attacks aren't as powerful as some of the record-setting ones that Mirai participated in, they remain plenty big, especially for an upstart botnet. Peak volumes have reached 400 gigabits per second and 200 million packets per second. The attacks zero in on level 3 and level 4 of a target's network layer and are aimed at exhausting transmission control protocol resources. Read 2 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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posted 1 day ago on ars technica
Enlarge / The iPad Air 2 and Mini 4. (credit: Andrew Cunningham) Apple's Activation Lock feature, introduced in iOS 7 in 2013, deters thieves by associating your iPhone and iPad with your Apple ID. Even if a thief steals your device, puts it into Recovery Mode, and completely resets it, the phone or tablet won't work without the original user's Apple ID and password. This makes stolen iDevices less valuable since they become more difficult to resell, and it has significantly reduced iPhone theft in major cities. The feature has been difficult to crack, but a new exploit disclosed by Vulnerability Lab security analyst Benjamin Kunz Mejri uses a buffer overflow exploit and some iPad-specific bugs to bypass Activation Lock in iOS 10.1.1. When you're setting up a freshly-reset iPad with Activation Lock enabled, the first step is to hit "Choose Another Network" when you're asked to connect to Wi-Fi. Select a security type, and then input a very, very long string of characters into both the network name and network password fields (copying and pasting your increasingly long strings of characters can speed this up a bit). These fields were not intended to process overlong strings of characters, and the iPad will gradually slow down and then freeze as the strings become longer. During one of these freezes, rotate the tablet, close its Smart Cover for a moment, and then re-open the cover. The screen will glitch out for a moment before displaying the Home screen for a split second, at which point a well-timed press of the Home button can apparently bypass Activation Lock entirely (but it will have to be extremely well-timed, since the first-time setup screen will pop back up after a second). Read 2 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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(credit: Microsoft) Microsoft's 12 days of deals holiday season promotion starts at 12am Pacific on Monday, December 5. Each day has a different special offer, and some of the savings sound pretty big. On two different days, including the opening Monday, certain systems will be discounted by as much as $1,000. Certain Dell machines will be discounted by as much as 40 percent on the 11th day of the promotion, and on the last day, Microsoft is cutting up to $200 off the Surface Pro 4 while throwing in a free $159 Type Cover. There will be promotions covering tablets, laptops, Xbox One consoles, games, and even the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift VR headsets at various times through the month. Offers will be available online and in-store while stocks last, with the promotion of the day changing at midnight Pacific each day. Read 1 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / Paris as seen through a veil of smog, taken in early October. (credit: Getty Images | PATRICK KOVARIK/AFP) You have to feel for the Europeans out there who own small diesel-engined cars. For years, car companies and governments have extolled the breed, discounting the fuel and promoting it as the way to achieve economical vehicles with acceptable carbon emissions. Then it turns out that diesel emissions—which include a lot more than just CO2—are actually really bad for us. Plus, cheating appeared to be rampant within the industry. After pushing diesel cars for so long, a volte-face is now underway, including measures to ban diesel engines from Paris, Athens, and Madrid (as well as Mexico City, which we do realize is not in Europe). The plan, announced in Mexico City during the C40 Mayors Summit which took place this week, follows restrictions recently enacted by the Parisian mayor to clean up that city's air quality. Over in Japan, Tokyo actually banned diesel engines at the turn of the century, although advances in engine technology and emissions controls have seen that relaxed in recent years. Read 2 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / You're doing it wrong. (credit: Charles Nadeau) The current leadership of the US House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology has a fraught relationship with climate science. Congressman Lamar Smith (R-Tex.), who chairs the committee, has used its subpoena powers to target NOAA climate scientists whose temperature dataset he does not like. He has also gone after the attorneys general of New York and Massachusetts, who are pursuing a securities fraud investigation of ExxonMobil related to its public denial of climate change. On Thursday, the committee’s Twitter account hopped on this anti-climate-science bandwagon. It tweeted a link to a story titled “Global temperatures plunge. Icy silence from climate alarmists” that was published by Breitbart—the hard-right, white-nationalist-supporting news outlet that saw its chairman, Steve Bannon, become President-elect Donald Trump’s chief strategist. The article was written by James Delingpole, a columnist who has made a career out of insult-laden polemics against climate science. (In an episode of BBC’s Horizon, Delingpole famously admitted that he never reads scientific papers and called himself “an interpreter of interpretations.”) In this case, Delingpole mostly tacked a few put-downs onto quotes from a Daily Mail story written by David Rose—who also has a long history of writing deeply misleading stories about climate science. Read 5 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge (credit: Mambembe Arts & Crafts on Flickr) When 20-year-old Lan Cai was in a car crash this summer, it was a bad situation. Driving home at 1:30am from a waitressing shift, Cai was plowed into by a drunk driver and broke two bones in her lower back. Unsure about how to navigate her car insurance and prove damages, she reached out for legal help. The help she got, Cai said, was less than satisfactory. Lawyers from the Tuan A. Khuu law firm ignored her contacts, and at one point they came into her bedroom while Cai was sleeping in her underwear. "Seriously, it's super unprofessional!" she wrote on Facebook. (The firm maintains it was invited in by Cai's mother.) She also took to Yelp to warn others about her bad experience. The posts led to a threatening e-mail from Tuan Khuu attorney Keith Nguyen. "If you do not remove the post from Facebook and any other social media sites, my office will have no choice but to file suit," he told her, according to a report in the Houston Press on the saga. Read 9 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / Uber's iOS popup asking for new surveillance permissions. (credit: David Kravets) As promised, Uber is now tracking you even when your ride is over. The ride-hailing service said the surveillance—even when riders close the app—will improve its service. The company now tracks customers from when they request a ride until five minutes after the ride has ended. According to Uber, the move will help drivers locate riders without having to call them, and it will also allow Uber to analyze whether people are being dropped off and picked up properly—like on the correct side of the street. "We do this to improve pickups, drop-offs, customer service, and to enhance safety," Uber said. In a statement, the company said: Read 3 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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(credit: Aurich Lawson) The Federal Communications Commission has reached a preliminary conclusion that AT&T is violating net neutrality rules by using data cap exemptions to favor DirecTV video on its mobile network. The FCC yesterday also expressed concerns to Verizon about that carrier's similar data cap exemption policies, but the examination of Verizon is in a slightly earlier stage. The FCC first raised the issue with AT&T a few weeks ago, and AT&T defended its practices in a response. But rather than satisfying the commission's concerns, AT&T's response "tends to confirm our initial view that the Sponsored Data program strongly favors AT&T's own video offerings while unreasonably discriminating against unaffiliated edge providers and limiting their ability to offer competing video services to AT&T's broadband subscribers on a level playing field," said a letter to AT&T yesterday from Jon Wilkins, chief of the FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau. Read 12 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / A screenshot from Racer, the driving simulation software used for the task. (credit: Racer) Despite how much noise pop psychology makes about being left-brained or right-brained, the brain is really a very cohesive unit. The right and left hemispheres have some differences, but they communicate with each other via dedicated neural connections that bridge the two halves of the brain. Some people, though, have the two halves of their brains separated as a treatment for severe epilepsy. What’s remarkable is that this has fewer effects than you might imagine. Although there certainly are differences in how a split brain behaves, people who have this surgery tend to behave largely as we'd expect anyone else to, and they're actually better at certain kinds of dual tasks. These split-brained individuals are interesting because they can help us understand how the brain processes information and how it integrates or separates tasks that are running concurrently. For instance, we know that the two hemispheres in a split brain have to process tasks separately from each other (the connection between them is gone, remember), with each hemisphere unaware of what the other one is up to. Read 11 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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posted 1 day ago on ars technica
Enlarge The Nashville metro government wants a court to throw out a Comcast lawsuit that seeks to overturn rules designed to speed up deployment of Google Fiber. Nashville filed a motion to dismiss Comcast's lawsuit in US District Court in Tennessee on Wednesday, saying that Comcast incorrectly claimed Nashville's rules are preempted by state and federal law. The case is about Nashville's "One Touch Make Ready" ordinance that gives ISPs faster access to utility poles. One Touch Make Ready (also known as "Climb Once") lets new competitors move existing ISPs' wires in order to make room for new pole attachments, instead of having to wait for the incumbent ISPs to send work crews to move their own wires. The metro government passed the rules to help Google Fiber install wires faster, but both AT&T and Comcast are seeking to invalidate the ordinance. "Comcast’s Complaint should be dismissed because it fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted," Nashville wrote. "Comcast has not demonstrated that the Metropolitan Government’s Climb Once ordinance is preempted by federal law. The enactment of Climb Once was a legitimate exercise of police powers to manage public rights-of-way. As it affects poles owned by the Nashville Electric Service ('NES'), federal pole attachment law is inapplicable to those poles, so preemption does not apply. As it affects privately owned poles, there is no preemption because the FCC timeline [the time allowed for pole attachments] does not conflict with Climb Once ordinances—a position espoused by the FCC itself." Read 4 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / One of these cars is not like the others, one of these cars does not belong. (credit: Amazon Prime) People enjoy talking about The Grand Tour, if the comment threads for the last couple of weeks are anything to go by. Episode one blew several pairs of socks off collected Ars staffers in much the same way episode two didn't. In fact, the drop in quality week-on-week shocked everyone—probably overshadowing the whole DriveTribe thing. This week the tent comes to us from Whitby, a fishing village in Yorkshire, England. Perhaps the local vibe helped, for our three hosts are all Yorkshiremen, and on home soil the show was in fine form. Most importantly, we got to see an actual grand tour on The Grand Tour. The show is named after the trips around Europe that served as a gap year for rich kids in the 18th and 19th centuries until the Industrial Revolution and those infernal steam engines came along and democratized the whole thing. Jeremy Clarkson and James May take the theme to heart with a trip through the grand cities of Italy. Starting off in Siena and ending in Venice, the plan is to combine art and opera with an appreciation of two of Britain's finest cars. Appropriately these are a pair of Grand Tourers, machines built to cross continents in style (and at speed if necessary). GTs are an under-appreciated expression of the motoring form, not as flashy as the mid-engined sports car but often similarly out of reach to the average citizen. Combine a two-door shell with a sybaritic interior and a big powerful engine—preferably a V12—driving the rear wheels and that's a GT. In this case, it's Aston Martin's new DB11 and the Rolls-Royce Dawn drophead coupé. Read 4 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / AT&T will own a bunch of new media properties if it is allowed to buy Time Warner. (credit: Aurich Lawson) AT&T is reportedly feeling confident about its ability to buy Time Warner after meeting with President-elect Donald Trump's transition team—even though Trump himself vowed to block the merger during his campaign. "Donald Trump’s transition team has reassured AT&T that its $85.4 billion acquisition of Time Warner will be scrutinized without prejudice," the Financial Times reported yesterday. "After talking with the president-elect’s team, AT&T executives are confident that their deal has a good chance of passing regulatory scrutiny, people informed about the conversation said." Time Warner, the programming company that owns CNN and HBO, is a separate entity from Time Warner Cable, the ISP that was recently purchased by Charter Communications. Read 7 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge / Courtroom 1 in the René Davidson Courthouse, part of the Alameda County Superior Court in Oakland, California. (credit: Cyrus Farivar) OAKLAND, Calif.—Most pieces of software don’t have the power to get someone arrested—but Tyler Technologies’ Odyssey Case Manager does. This is the case management software that runs on the computers of hundreds and perhaps even thousands of court clerks and judges in county courthouses across the US. (Federal courts use an entirely different system.) Typically, when a judge makes a ruling—for example, issuing or rescinding a warrant—those words said by a judge in court are entered into Odyssey. That information is then relied upon by law enforcement officers to coordinate arrests and releases and to issue court summons. (Most other courts, even if they don’t use Odyssey, use a similar software system from another vendor.) But, just across the bay from San Francisco, Alameda County's deputy public defender, Jeff Chorney, says that since the county switched from a decades-old computer system to Odyssey in August, dozens of defendants have been wrongly arrested or jailed. Others have even been forced to register as sex offenders unnecessarily. “I understand that with every piece of technology, bugs have to be worked out,” he said, practically exasperated. “But we're not talking about whether people are getting their paychecks on time. We're talking about people being locked in cages, that's what jail is. It's taking a person and locking them in a cage.” Read 23 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Enlarge (credit: NMC) Donald Trump's incoming administration might be going full steam ahead in returning to fossil fuels, but the clean energy sector might have other ideas. Nikola Motor Company has just unveiled a huge class 8 truck (as big as they get) that's powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, claiming it will have an operational range of as much as 1,200 miles (1,900km) when it's released in 2020. The Nikola One, which is designed for long-haul good transport across a large landmass, will according to its creators be able to travel between 800 and 1,200 miles on a single tank of fuel, while delivering over 1,000 horsepower and 2,000 foot-pounds of torque. If these claims are true, it will provide nearly double the power of the current generation of diesel-powered semis/articulated lorries. Read 7 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Last year we wrote about the "USB Killer"—a DIY USB stick that fried almost everything (laptops, smartphones, consoles, cars) that it was plugged into. Now the USB Killer has been mass produced—you can buy it online for about £50/$50. Now everyone can destroy just about every computer that has a USB port. Hooray. The commercialised USB Killer looks like a fairly humdrum memory stick. You can even purchase a "Test Shield" for £15/$15, which lets you try out the kill stick—watch the spark of electricity arc between the two wires!—without actually frying the target device, though I'm not sure why you would want to spend £65 to do that. The website proudly states that the USB Killer is CE approved, meaning it has passed a number of EU electrical safety directives. Read 9 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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posted 2 days ago on ars technica
The Game Awards returned for another annual iteration on Thursday, and like in years past, the online-streamed ceremony was probably more interesting because of game trailer debuts than any of its awards—with the exception of the very first award given. Last year's broadcast was notable thanks to a weird no-show: Metal Gear Solid series creator Hideo Kojima, who wasn't allowed to attend thanks to contract issues with his former employers at Konami. "What happened to Hideo Kojima last year was a tragedy," a visibly shaken host Geoff Keighley told the crowd—referring specifically to Konami's choice to "lock him in a room" thanks to those squabbles—before handing him the show's Industry Icon award. Death Stranding December 2016 trailer "Last year, I thought I lost everything," Kojima told the crowd in accepting the award. "But I didn't lose anything." He then revealed a new cinematic, non-gameplay trailer for his new PlayStation-exclusive game, Death Stranded, which was apparently rendered in real time on a PlayStation 4—and if so, it's shaping up to be quite the stunner of a game. Read 10 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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posted 2 days ago on ars technica
Enlarge / AirDroid's example imagery. For at least the past six months, a popular remote management app available in the official Google Play Store has opened tens of millions of Android users to code-execution and data-theft attacks when they use unsecured networks, researchers said Thursday. As recently as earlier this week—and possibly even at this moment—the most up-to-date versions of AirDroid have used a static and easily detectable encryption key when transmitting update files and sensitive user data, according to a blog post published by security firm Zimperium. Attackers who are on the same network can exploit the weakness to push fraudulent updates or view potentially sensitive user information, including the international mobile equipment identity and international mobile subscriber identity designations that are unique to each phone. The app has been downloaded 10 million to 50 million times from the official Google Play Store. "A malicious party on the same network as the victim can leverage this vulnerability to remotely gain full control of their device," Simone Margaritelli, principal security researcher at Zimperium's zLabs, told Ars. "Moreover, the attacker will be able to see the user's sensitive information such as the IMEI, IMSI, and so forth. As soon as the update, or fake update, is installed the software automatically launches the updated [Android app file] without ever verifying who built it." Read 7 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Flu viruses showing the protein coat that surrounds their genetic material. (credit: Takeshi Noda/University of Tokyo) Synthetic biology has become a catch-all term for attempts to engineer organisms to do things they normally wouldn't. Efforts so far have ranged from assembling logic circuits inside bacteria to replacing an entire bacterial genome with one synthesized from scratch. So far, however, the field has largely produced some extremely impressive proofs-of-concept. There haven't been a lot of advances with obvious practical uses. That may be about to change. Researchers have taken a technique that's been used a number of times before—engineering cells to use an artificial amino acid—and applied it to make a flu virus that acts as a vaccine. The vaccine is highly effective and, because it depends on an amino acid our cells don't use, it can't cause infections in us. Best yet, if the vaccine gets into cells with a normal flu virus, it interferes with its ability to generate an infection. All of our proteins are made with different combinations of the same 20 amino acids. While many additional amino acids exist, those 20 appear to be the standard toolkit that all life shares. There are a few exceptional organisms that use a 21st, but these oddball amino acids are usually close chemical relatives of existing ones. Read 16 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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Long after the discovery of Anglo-Saxon graveyards at the Sutton Hoo site in East Anglia, England, scientists are still analyzing the treasures uncovered there. Perhaps the most famous grave at the site was discovered in 1939 by Suffolk amateur archaeologist Basil Brown. Inside a mound, he and his colleagues discovered the remains of a 27 meter-long Anglo-Saxon ship packed with grave goods including shields, cauldrons, jewelry, and a now-iconic iron-and-bronze helmet. Remains of the high-ranking individual buried here were dissolved by in the acidic soil, but a lot of his loot remained intact. Safely ensconced at the British Museum, many items from the burial chamber in the ship have been catalogued and displayed. Still, a few mysteries remain. For decades, no one could identify a cache of hard, black nuggets. They were tentatively categorized as pine tar, which the Anglo-Saxons would have used for waterproofing ships. Now a team of scientists have figured it out. Writing in PLoS One, they describe using techniques including mass spectrometry and gas chromatography to analyze the chemical composition of the lumps. Eebahgum/Wikimedia Read 5 remaining paragraphs | Comments

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